General Surgery, Breast Surgery, Endoscopy

General Surgery

General surgeons often specialise in particular services. These may include obesity surgery, breast surgery, colorectal surgery, endoscopy, hernia repair, laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery, laparoscopic surgery, thyroid surgery, varicose veins, vascular surgery.

General Surgery

General surgery focuses on the torso and abdominal organs. This may include the intestines comprising the oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts. It also often deals with diseases and disorders involving the skin and breasts.

Bariatrics / Obesity Surgery

Bariatric surgery (obesity surgery or weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who are obese (severely overweight). The main aim is to reduce the size of the stomach to help achieve long-term weight loss. Three key procedures are: reducing the size of the stomach with an implanted band (gastric banding); removing part of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion); or by redirecting the small intestines to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass).

Breast Surgery

Breast Surgeons are General Surgeons who have subspecialised in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of breast disease in women (generally), and men. Breast cancer detection and surgery is their major focus. Breast Surgeons usually work as part of a multidisciplinary team.

Colorectal Surgery

A Colorectal Surgeon repairs damage to the colon, rectum and anus. Colorectal Surgery is a vital treatment option for colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and some cases of diverticulitis, often resulting in reconstruction of the intestinal tract. Other bowel conditions that may require surgery to a lesser extent include haemorrhoids, anal fissures (tears in the lining of the anus), bowel incontinence, and rectal prolapse.


An endoscope (a lighted, flexible instrument that has a small camera on the tip) is passed through a natural body opening (e.g. mouth) or a small incision. Small instruments can be inserted through an endoscope and used to take samples of tissues for analysis (biopsy), to remove material (e.g. removing polyps during a colonoscopy), or to carry out a variety of surgical procedures.

Hernia Repair

Hernia repair can be done by open surgery or laparoscopically. Repair may correct inguinal hernia, femoral hernia, umbilical hernia, or other hernias.

Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux Surgery

Reflux surgery, also called fundoplication, is a technique to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD involves inflammation, pain (heartburn), and complications that result when acid refluxes (regurgitates) from the stomach into the oesophagus. Laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery usually means a shorter hospital stay.

Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic surgery, also known as ‘keyhole surgery’, is carried out with the aid of a camera inserted into the abdomen or pelvis. A number of procedures can be performed laparoscopically, including gallbladder removal (laparoscopic cholecystectomy), oesophageal surgery (laparoscopic fundoplication), colon surgery (laparoscopic colectomy), and surgery on the stomach and spleen.

Thyroid Surgery

Thyroid surgery involves removing part or all of the thyroid gland, under general anaesthesia. Usually, the lobe of the thyroid gland containing the nodule lump is removed. An analysis of tissue will determine if the rest of the thyroid gland should be removed.

Varicose Veins

Treatment is not always necessary for varicose veins, although severe cases, especially those involving ulcers, require treatment. Often, the varicose veins are removed to let blood flow through the remaining healthy veins. This can be done by surgery (vein stripping) or by a non-invasive procedure called sclerotherapy.

Vascular Surgery

Procedures to treat arteries and veins include angiography (performed to view blood vessels in many areas of the body), stenting (inserting a small tube to keep a blood vessel open), repair of an aneurysm (an abnormal widening or ballooning of part of a vein or artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel); and treatment of obstructions in arteries, as well as other conditions.