The vulva is the external female genitalia. It includes the ‘lips’ or folds of skin (labia majora and labia minora), clitoris, and the openings to the vagina and urethra (tube which carries urine). There is a wide range of vulvar (or vulval) conditions and diseases including: fungal, bacterial or viral infections (e.g. yeast infection, sexually transmitted infections); skin conditions (e.g. contact dermatitis); epithelial disorders (relating to the epithelium, the outside layer of cells that covers the skin and mucous membranes, e.g. lichen sclerosus); raised lesions or masses (e.g. cysts or abscesses); potentially malignant or malignant (cancerous) conditions (e.g. vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma); and injuries to the vulva. Treatment varies and depends on the specific condition and may include medication and surgery.