involves treatment of diseases and disorders in foetuses (in-utero), infants (including neonatal or newborn), children and adolescents. There are many specialised surgical areas, such as cardiothoracic (heart), nephrology (kidneys), neurosurgery (nervous system), and urological (urinary system) surgery. Paediatric surgery is commonly used for a wide range of conditions, many related to congenital malformations (birth defects), such as cleft lip and palate, or developmental defects, such as abdominal hernias and undescended testes. Surgery may also be related to social practices, such as male circumcision.
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