Glaucoma is a common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eyes rises because of reduced fluid drainage from the eye, treatment is undertaken by an Ophthalmologist. If untreated, it may damage the optic nerve, which carries visual information from the eye to the brain, and other parts of the eye, causing loss of vision or even blindness. The front part of the eye is filled with a clear fluid called aqueous humor, which is always being made in the back of the eye. It leaves the eye through channels in the front of the eye in an area called the anterior chamber angle. Anything that reduces or blocks the flow of this fluid will cause pressure to build up in the eye, called intraocular pressure (IOP). There are four main types of glaucoma. Open-angle (chronic) glaucoma is the most common. An increase in pressure occurs slowly and usually painlessly over time. The pressure pushes on the optic nerve and the retina (light-sensitive tissue) at the back of the eye. This type of glaucoma tends to run in families. The aim of treatment is to reduce eye pressure, using medications or surgery, either a painless laser treatment, to help open the fluid outflow channels, or more traditional surgery under general anaesthetic to open a new channel. Early diagnosis and careful management are the keys to preventing vision loss.
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