Nephrology / Renal Medicine


, or renal medicine involves diagnosis and treatment of

Kidney Diseases

and disorders. The kidneys, located in the rear of the abdominal cavity, filter out wastes and excess fluid from the blood and excrete them as urine. Common problems with the kidneys include: acute (sudden) sudden loss of kidney function or chronic (long-term) worsening of function; hypertension, kidney stones; urinary tract infections; blood loss in the urine (haematuria); and protein loss in the urine (proteinuria). Treatment for many kidney disorders by a


, commonly involves medications. However, if kidney function worsens or begins to fail,


(using a machine to filter the blood) may be needed and, later, kidney transplantation.

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